Статья посвящена методологическим основам развития семейного бизнеса в Республики Узбекистан. Изучен и проанализирован международный опыт развития семейного бизнеса. Также в статье рассмотрены теории зарубежных экономистов по вопросам методологических и теоретических основ развития семейного бизнеса и предпринимательство. Особое внимание уделено институционализации семейных предприятий в сфере малого бизнеса. Annotation.
The article is devoted to the methodological foundations of the development of the family business in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The international experience of development of family business is studied and analyzed. The article also examines the theories of foreign economists on the methodological and theoretical foundations of the development of the family business and entrepreneurship. Special attention is paid to the institutionalization of family enterprises in the sphere of small business.
Ключевые слова: семейный бизнес, рынок, семейная компания, малый бизнес, семейное предприятие.
Keywords: family business, market, family company, small business, family enterprise.
If we consider Uzbekistan’s transition to the market-oriented economy was based on the „Uzbek model”, founded by the first president Republic of Uzbekistan, then we will find out that the methodological base of analyzing family-scale business of the country was founded on the base of so-called „Uzbek model”. In other words, the development of family-scale business in Uzbekistan is similar to the development of family-scale business internationally, but at the same time, it has unique characteristics.
The analysis of the formation and development of family-scale business in Uzbekistan was founded under the theory of entrepreneurship. One of the founders of this theory is considered an English economist called F. Kantilion. As an economist, he brought the concept of „Entrepreneur” into usage in his book called „Sketches about the nature of commerce” which he wrote in the middle of 18th century. According to the book, an entrepreneur is someone who is ready to be in charge of taking risks to build a new company, a new economic idea, a new product, and applying a new type of service.
According to a French Economist J. B. Sey, an entrepreneur is someone who is taking risks on his own regarding producing a product in order to take a profit.
His main task is collecting some information and some experience, and integrating them with manufacturing factors, deciding when necessary and organizing the process of production. As Sey says, an entrepreneur’s income consists of 2 types of profit:
„Industry-based income”; „Capital-based income”. An entrepreneur might also take profit from brokerage, as entrepreneurs are well aware of the hints about which the representatives of other fields do not usually have the idea regarding the sphere.
Although Kantelion and Sey cited valuable views concerning entrepreneurship, a logical complete theory was formed by an American economist and sociologist Y. Schumpeter. The following rules indicate his main concepts about entrepreneurship properties:
— the main function of entrepreneurship is to produce a new or updated product, discovering new sources and markets of raw material, and inventing a market place to sell the product and using other different opportunities, thus reforming the production;
— the main concept of entrepreneurship is about „a new type of combination” that is, integration between the production and its interaction, or in other words, applying several factors of novelty;
— entrepreneurship is universal general-economic function of any kind of social formation;
— the condition of economic and political environment is essential for entrepreneurship;
The environment contemplates not only the methods of using „new combinations”, but also the main tips of entrepreneurship motivation .
The views of Y. Shumpeter regarding entrepreneurship served as a fundament for institutional-evolutional economic theory which started to develop in the first quarter of ХХ century.
Some founders of classic and non-classic socio-economic schools joined to the points of Y. Shumpeter concerning entrepreneurship.
The founder of Cambridge school of theory of political economy, A. Marshall stated the following functions of entrepreneurship:
— Integration of capital and labor;
— Planning the total agenda of the production;
— Setting control over products and services;
— Selling products and services. He explained that entrepreneurship is a top priority labour and effort in operating a company.
M. Veber explained Western entrepreneurship relating it to the ethics of protestantism. M. Zombard indicated the two main spiritual characteristics of capitalism „Spirit of entrepreneurship” and „Spirit of citizenship” as opposite matters to one another. His understanding of the spirit of entrepreneurship was readiness for taking risks which are formed and developed from an institutional point, spiritual freedom, richness in ideology, will and persistence, having the ability to persuade the customers to purchase an offered product and the ability to earn their trust.
According to B. Zombard’s point of view, an entrepreneur is someone who should be an „achiever”, an „orginizer”, and a „tradesman”. These characteristics are contrary to diligence, moderateness, calculus which are peculiar to bourgeoisie. As he emphasized that the main point of entrepreneurship is about striving for the development of the business and the company, and the profit is usually an unclear conception as it is often referred to aforementioned prosperity of the business. An entrepreneur whose target is always taking a profit can never become a prominent businessman.
The founder of the New Austria school of economy, Hayyok agrees with a lot of views of Shumpeter. He believes that the superior factor of market-oriented economy is the freedom of a person. This freedom makes an exception for a person to only follow the will of others, but he obeys the rules of citizenship and society. According to Hayyok, the knowledge and capability of each person has a unique characteristics, but using those capabilities requires each person’s active and direct participation. Inexactitude of market conditions, gives a chance to „create a path for future”. The force that gives life to search for new opportunities is an entrepreneur. As he is the one who uses his unique knowledge to manage the market conditions and in this way he aspires to win in the completion and eventually to bring in a huge income.
The institutional-evolutional theory makes it possible to create the opportunity of thoroughly investigating the economic life of the society. This theory contains plenty of information from the fields of biology, cybernetics, theories of systems, and the methodology of other subjects and adapted them to analyze the economic life.
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